Study of Chemotherapy Versus Biochemotherapy with Chemotherapy plus Aloe
arborescens in Patients with Metastatic Cancer
In Vivo Ottobre 2008
the anticancer immunity by natural agents: inhibition of T regulatory lymphocyte
generation by arabinoxylan in patients with locally limited or metastatic
Cancer Therapy Vol 6, 1011-1016, 2008
in ambito oncologico
|RICERCHE EFFETTUATE SULL'ALOE
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Aggiornamento di settembre 2002
Università di Padova, dipartimento di Istologia, microbiologia e biotecnologia medica
Teresa Pecere, M. Vittoria Gazzola, Carla Mucignat, Cristina Parolin,
Francesca Dalla Vecchia, Andrea Cavaggioni, Giuseppe
L'aloe-emodina, un idrossiantrachinone presente nell'aloe vera, ha un'attività
specifica antitumorale antineuroectodermica sia in provetta sia nelle cellule
vive. La crescita dei tumori neuroectodermici umani è inibita nei
topi con grave immunodeficenza combinata senza nessun apprezzabile effetto
tossico sugli animali. Il composto non inibisce la proliferazione dei fibroblasti
normali nè quella delle cellule progenitrici omopoietiche. Il meccanismo
di citotossicità consiste nell'induzione di apoptosi, invece la
selettività contro le cellule tumorali neuroectodermiche è
trovata sullo specifico sentiero energetico-dipendente dell'assunzione
della sostanza. L'aloe-emodina può quindi rappresentare una sostanza
guida antitumorale concettualmente nuova.
Ospedale S. Gerardo, Monza,
Lissoni P., Gianni L., Zerbini S., Trabattoni P., Rovelli F., divisione di radiologia oncologica
"Questo studio preliminare suggerisce che una terapia naturale per il
cancro con melatonina ed estratto di aloe vera può produrrebenefici
terapeutici, almeno quanto a stabilizzazione della malattia e sopravvivenza,
nei pazienti con tumori solidi incurabili, per i quali nessuna altra terapia
è disponibile", 1998.
Studi riguardanti gli effetti dell'aloe sulla cura dei carcinomi su persone e animali
Chemopreventive effects of Aloe arborescens on N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine-induced
pancreatic carcinogenesis in
Furukawa F, Nishikawa A, Chihara T, Shimpo K, Beppu H, Kuzuya H, Lee
IS, Hirose M. Division of Pathology, Biological Safety Research Center,
The modification effects of freeze-dried aloe (Aloe arborescens) whole
leaf powder during the initiation phase of carcinogenesis were investigated
in hamsters treated with N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropyl)amine (BOP). Female Syrian
hamsters were given four weekly subcutaneous injections of BOP at a dose
of 10mg/kg and then given 0, 1 or 5% aloe in their diet for 5 weeks. At
week 54 of the experiment, all surviving animals were sacrificed and development
of neoplastic and preneoplastic lesions was assessed histopathologically.
The incidences of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, atypical hyperplasias or
total atypical hyperplasias plus adenocarcinomas were significantly (P<0.05)
decreased with BOP+5% aloe, and that of adenocarcinomas were also significantly
(P<0.05) reduced in the BOP+1% aloe as compared to the BOP alone group.
Multiplicities of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, atypical hyperplasias or
total lesions were also significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05) lower in
the BOP+5% aloe group than with the BOP alone. Quantitative data for neoplastic
lesions in the lung, liver, gall bladder, kidney and urinary
The effect of aloe emodin on the proliferation of a new merkel carcinoma cell line.
Wasserman L, Avigad S, Beery E, Nordenberg J, Fenig E. Felsenstein Medical
Research Center, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Rabin
A free-floating cell line has been established from a metastatic lesion
of a Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) patient. The cell line was characterized
by immunocytochemical reactions with antibodies against the epithelial
and neuroendocrine antigens: cytokeratin 20, neuron-specific enolase, chromogranin
A, neurofilament protein, synaptophysin, and calcitonin. Karyotype analysis
of the MCC cells showed deletion in chromosomes 3 and 7, loss of chromosome
10, and several translocations in other chromosomes. No mutation was detected
in the TP53 gene, after analyzing the complete coding region. Growth factors
such as basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta,
and nerve and epidermal growth factors had no effect on the proliferation
of the cells. The differentiation-inducing agents sodium butyrate and dimethyl
sulfoxide, especially the former, markedly inhibited the proliferation
of the MCC cells. Aloe emodin, a natural constituent of aloe vera leaves,
significantly inhibited the growth of MCC cells. Aloe emodin has been reported
to be nontoxic for normal cells but to
Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci formation
in rat colorectum by whole leaf Aloe arborescens
Shimpo K, Chihara T, Beppu H, Ida C, Kaneko T, Nagatsu T, Kuzuya H.
Fujita Memorial Institute of Pharmacognosy, Fujita Health University, Hisai,
We examined the modifying effect of whole-leaf Aloe arborescens Miller
var. natalensis Berger (designated as 'ALOE') on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced
aberrant crypt foci (ACF), putative preneoplastic lesions, in the rat colorectum.
Male F344 rats (4 weeks old) were fed the basal diet, or experimental diets
containing 1% or 5% ALOE for 5 weeks. One week later, all rats except those
in the vehicle-treated groups were injected s.c. with AOM (15 mg/kg, once
weekly for 3 weeks). At 9
Effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Lee HZ, Hsu SL, Liu MC, Wu CH. School of Pharmacy, China Medical College, 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung, 404, Taiwan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-anthraquinone) is an active component from the root and rhizome of Rheum palmatum. The study investigated the effects and mechanisms of aloe-emodin-induced cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma cell line CH27. Aloe-emodin (40 microM)-induced CH27 cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation (DNA ladders and sub-G(1) formation). Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis of CH27 cells involved modulation of the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, such as BclX(L), Bag-1, and Bak, and was associated with the translocation of Bak and Bax from cytosolic to particulate fractions. Aloe-emodin-treated CH27 cells had an increased relative abundance of cytochrome c in the cytosolic fraction. Results demonstrated that the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 is an important determinant of apoptotic death induced by aloe-emodin. These results suggest that aloe-emodin induces CH27 cell death by the Bax and Fas death pathway. PMID: 11730720
Cytotoxic and DNA damage-inducing activities of low molecular weight phenols from rhubarb.
Shi YQ, Fukai T, Sakagami H, Kuroda J, Miyaoka R, Tamura M, Yoshida N, Nomura T. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Toho University, Funabashi, Chiba, Japan.
Six new phenol (anthraquinone or stilbene) glycosides with an acyl group
at 6-position of the glucopyranose moiety were isolated from rhubarb (the
roots of Rheum palmatum) cultivated in Japan, together with 22 known compounds.
Most of these compounds were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against tumor
and normal cells and for induction of DNA damage by spore rec-assay. Among
them, emodin and aloe-emodin showed higher cytotoxic activities against
human oral squamous cell
Protein kinase C involvement in aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis in lung carcinoma cell.
Lee HZ. School of Pharmacy, China Medical College, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung, 404, Taiwan. email@example.com
1. This study demonstrated aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced apoptosis
in lung carcinoma cell lines CH27 (human lung squamous carcinoma cell)
and H460 (human lung non-small cell carcinoma cell). Aloe-emodin- and emodin-induced
apoptosis was characterized by nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation.
Studio sui benefici dell'aloe contro gli effetti collaterali della radioterapia
The effect of aloe vera gel/mild soap versus mild soap alone in preventing
skin reactions in patients undergoing
Olsen DL, Raub W Jr, Bradley C, Johnson M, Macias JL, Love V, Markoe A. Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, USA.
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the use of mild soap and aloe
vera gel versus mild soap alone would decrease the incidence of skin reactions
in patients undergoing radiation therapy. DATA SOURCES: Prospective, randomized,
blinded clinical trial. SETTING: Radiation therapy outpatient clinic in
a cancer center affiliated with a major teaching medical facility. SAMPLE:
The mean age of the participants was 56 years. The group consisted of Caucasians
Studies on chemical radioprotectors against X-irradiation used by soft X-ray accelerator
Shinoda M. Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hoshi University, Tokyo, Japan.
This review describes the modes of mice radiation injuries induced by soft X-irradiation under various conditions and the protective effects of several kinds of substances on these injuries. The models of radiation injuries in this study were bone marrow death after lethal irradiation, skin damage induced by irradiation with long length soft X-ray and leukocytopenia in the peripheral blood after sublethal irradiation. Two bioassay methods were established for the survival effect on the lethal irradiation and protective potency on the skin damage induced by soft X-irradiation. The protective potencies of various sulfur compounds, related compounds of ferulic acid, nucleic acid constitutional compounds, crude drugs and chinese traditional medicines were determined and then many effective drugs were recognized. Effective components in the methanol extracts of Cnidii Rhizoma and Aloe arborescens recognized as radioprotectable were fractionated. As a result of these studies, it was observed that the active principles in Cnidii Rhizoma were identified as ferulic acid and adenosine. The scavenge action of active oxygens, a protective effect on the damages of deoxyribonucleic acid and superoxide dismutase by in vitro soft X-irradiation were evaluated as radiation protective mechanisms. PMID: 7699579
Studio sull'azione benefica generale dell'aloe contro i tumori
Chemomodulatory action of Aloe vera on the profiles of enzymes associated
with carcinogen metabolism and
Singh RP, Dhanalakshmi S, Rao AR. Cancer Biology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India.
The effect of two doses (30 microl and 60 microl/day/mice daily for
14 days) of the fresh leaf pulp extract of Aloe vera was examined on carcinogen-metabolizing
phase-I and phase-II enzymes, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione content,
lactate dehydrogenase and lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. The
modulatory effect of the pulp extract was also examined on extrahepatic
organs (lung, kidney and forestomach) for the activities of glutathione
Studies of aloe. VI. Cathartic effect of isobarbaloin.
Ishii Y, Takino Y, Toyo'oka T, Tanizawa H. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Japan.
The cathartic effect of isobarbaloin, a stereoisomer of barbaloin (compound principally responsible for the cathartic activity of Aloe), was examined in male rats by oral administration. Individual differences in sensitivity in the laxative activity of isobarbaloin and barbaloin was not found. The cathartic activity (ED50) of isobarbaloin in barbaloin positive rats was 19.2 mg/kg, nearly equal to that of barbaloin (19.5 mg/kg). Also, isobarbaloin administered orally was demonstrated to decompose to aloe-emodin-9-anthrone (active metabolite of barbaloin) as well as to barbaloin. Therefore, it is considered that the mechanism underlying the cathartic effect of isobarbaloin is the same as that of barbaloin. PMID: 9853419
Effetti dell'aloe sulla leucemia negli uomini
Induction of apoptosis in human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and
U937 by diethylhexylphthalate isolated from Aloe
Lee KH, Hong HS, Lee CH, Kim CH. Animal Resource Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.
We investigated the effect of diethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) from Aloe
vera Linne on the apoptosis of human leukaemic cell lines K562, HL60 and
U937 to examine its pharmacological activity. At a level of 10 microg mL(-1)
DEHP a significant anti-leukaemic effect was observed for all three cell
lines, as measured by clonogenic assay. After treatment with 10 microg
mL(-1) DEHP for 4 h, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometric analysis
confirmed the occurrence of
Anti-leukaemic and anti-mutagenic effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate isolated from Aloe vera Linne.
Lee KH, Kim JH, Lim DS, Kim CH. Animal Resource Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.
Extracts of Aloe vera Linne have been found to exhibit cytotoxicity
against human tumour cell lines. This study examines the anti-tumour effects
of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) isolated from Aloe vera Linne, in human
and animal cell lines. Its anti-mutagenic effects were examined using Salmonella
typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. Growth inhibition was specifically
exerted by DEHP against three leukaemic cell lines at concentrations below
100 microg mL(-1). At 100 microg mL(-1) DEHP, K562, HL60 and U937 leukaemic
cell lines showed growth inhibition of 95, 97 and 95%, respectively. DEHP
exhibited an inhibitory activity of 74, 83 and 81%, respectively, in K562,
HL60 and U937 cell lines at a concentration of 10 microg mL(-1). At a concentration
of 1 microg mL(-1), DEHP exerted an inhibitory activity of 50, 51 and 52%,
respectively, in K562, HL60 and U937. In a normal cell line, MDBK, DEHP
exerted 30% growth inhibition at a concentration of 100 microg mL(-1),
and showed no inhibitory activity at concentrations below 50 microg mL(-1).
It was found that DEHP exerted
Aloe-emodin is a new type of anticancer agent with selective activity against neuroectodermal tumors.
Pecere T, Gazzola MV, Mucignat C, Parolin C, Vecchia FD, Cavaggioni
A, Basso G, Diaspro A, Salvato B, Carli M, Palu G. Department of Histology,
Here we report that aloe-emodin (AE), a hydroxyanthraquinone present
in Aloe vera leaves, has a specific in vitro and in vivo antineuroectodermal
Studio degli effetti dell'aloe contro tumori della pelle.
Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.
Mantle D, Gok MA, Lennard TW. Department of Surgery, Medical School, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU.
Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) ordelayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants or plant products (e.g. peanut allergy, poison ivy (Toxicodendron) poisoning). PMID: 11482001
Effetti dell'aloe contro i tumori cerebrali
Acemannan purified from Aloe vera induces phenotypic and functional maturation of immature dendritic cells.
Lee JK, Lee MK, Yun YP, Kim Y, Kim JS, Kim YS, Kim K, Han SS, Lee CK.
College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, South
Acemannan, a major carbohydrate fraction of Aloe vera gel, has been
known to have antiviral and antitumoral activities in vivo through activation
of immune responses. The present study was set out to define the immunomodulatory
activity of acemannan on dendritic cells (DCs), which are the most important
accessory cells for the initiation of primary immune responses. Immature
DCs were generated from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells by culturing in a
medium supplemented with GM-CSF and IL-4, and then stimulated with acemannan,
sulfated acemannan, and LPS, respectively. The resultant DCs were examined
for phenotypic and functional properties. Phenotypic analysis for the expression
of class II MHC molecules and major co-stimulatory molecules such as B7-1,
B7-2, CD40 and CD54 confirmed that acemannan could induce maturation of
immature DCs. Functional maturation of immature DCs was supported by increased
allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and IL-12 production. The differentiation-inducing
activity of acemannan was almost completely abolished by chemical sulfation.
Decreased mortality of Norman murine sarcoma in mice treated with the immunomodulator, Acemannan.
Peng SY, Norman J, Curtin G, Corrier D, McDaniel HR, Busbee D. Department
of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A & M University,
An extract from the parenchyma of Aloe barbadensis Miller shown to contain long chain polydispersed beta (1,4)-linked mannan polymers with random O-acetyl groups (acemannan, Carrisyn) was found to initiate the phagocyte production of monokines that supported antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity and stimulated blastogenesis in thymocytes. Acemannan, in both enriched and highly purified forms, was administered intraperitoneally to female CFW mice into which murine sarcoma cells had been subcutaneously implanted. The rapidly growing, highly malignant and invasive sarcoma grew in 100% of implanted control animals, resulting in mortality in 20 to 46 days, dependent on the number of cells implanted. Approximately 40% of animals treated with acemannan at the time of tumor cell implantation (1.5 x 10(6) cells) survived. Tumors in acemannan-treated animals exhibited vascular congestion, edema, polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration, and central necrosing foci with hemorrhage and peripheral fibrosis. The data indicate that in vivo treatment of peritoneal macrophages stimulates the macrophage production of monokines, including interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor. The data further indicate that sarcomas in animals treated i.p. with acemannan at the time of tumor cell implantation were infiltrated by immune system cells, became necrotic, and regressed. The combined data suggest that acemannan-stimulated synthesis of monokines resulted in the initiation of immune attack, necrosis, and regression of implanted sarcomas in mice. PMID: 1910624
Tumori dei polmoni
The therapeutic potential of Aloe Vera in tumor-bearing rats.
Corsi MM, Bertelli AA, Gaja G, Fulgenzi A, Ferrero ME. Institute of General Pathology, Medical Faculty, University of Milan, Italy.
Aloe Vera has been claimed to contain several important therapeutic
properties, including anticancer effects. The effect of Aloe Vera administration
was studied on a pleural tumor in rat. Growth of Yoshida AH-130 ascite
hepatoma cells injected (2 x 10(5) in 0.1 ml) into pleura of male inbred
Fisher rats was evaluated at different times (7th and 14th days). Data
show that the use of Aloe Vera proved a therapeutic method, and that the
present experimental model could be useful in the study of other therapeutics
treatments in vivo. PMID: 10093794